In 2007, Germany, Europe’s biggest economy, announced its plans for a 40% cut in carbon dioxide emissions by 2020, and to become the most energy-efficient country in the world. energy efficiency plays a crucial role in the new Energy Concept which was adopted in autumn 2010. The concept takes a clear economic policy approach relying on the creativity and innovative capacity of the market and competition. It is stated that primary energy consumption in 2050 is to be 50% lower than in 2008. This calls for an annual average gain in energy productivity of 2.1%. Electricity use will decrease 10% by 2020 and the modernisation of power plants will cut CO2 emissions by 30 million tonnes.
To implement Germany’s plans to become the world’s energy efficiency leader, the Ministry of Economics and Technology launched the Energy Efficiency Export Initiative. Germany plans to share its experience in this sphere and to make a contribution to global sustainable development. The Initiative calls for:
The German Energy Agency, Dena (Deutsche Energie-Agentur), was established in 2000 to promote energy-efficiency, increase use of renewable sources of energy, and fight climate change. Dena's mission is to generate economic growth and maintain prosperity with ever lower energy inputs and to intensify international energy efficiency programmes.
As an IPEEC member, Germany leads the Sustainable Buildings Network (SBN) task group.
India’s energy demand is predicted to double by 2030. To satisfy the growing need in energy, the country will have to improve the overall energy efficiency of its economy. India has great potential to make its economy more efficient and raise the share of renewable sources in its energy mix. The country possesses abundant natural resources and has a favourable geographical position to develop hydro, solar and wind energy.
The Indian Government is well aware of the challenge of raising energy efficiency in key sectors in the country. In 2010, it announced a $2.3 trillion energy investment plan to focus on renewable energy and energy efficiency. The plan is aimed at achieving consistently high economic growth rates without affecting the environment.
Several projects ran by ESCOs (energy service companies) contribute to the development of an efficient and environmentally friendly economy:
DSCLES, one of the first ESCOs in India, worked on a high-efficiency electrical lighting pilot project that now saves 252,000 kWh and accounts for 149 million tones of avoided CO2 emissions per year.
Asian Electronics replaced approximately 12,000 tube lights at the Sachivalaya Complex (the Parliament) which reduced the lighting load by 64% without sacrificing illumination levels.
India, along with China and Brazil, participates in the Three Country Energy Efficiency (3CEE) Project. Joint efforts of these three large economies can make a considerable contribution to global sustainable green growth. As an IPEEC member, India leads the AEEFM (Assessment of Energy Efficiency Finance Mechanisms) task group.
The Italian energy policy is currently based on diversification of energy sources, energy security, energy efficiency and environmental protection. To meet these challenges, Italy plans to increase the share of renewable sources of energy in its energy mix, especially in the electricity sector. In 2005, renewable energy electricity gross production (almost 50 TWh) represented 16.4 % of total gross production, 15.1 % of total electricity demand and 14.1% of gross inland consumption.
Currently, fossil fuels account for 87.5% of Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES). A significant proportion of TPES is imported (more than 85%) and this raises energy security issues.
The energy efficiency index for all end-consumers in Italy improved by 4% from 1990 to 2005; representing approximately a 0.3% annual growth. In the same period, the household sector showed the biggest improvements in terms of energy efficiency – growth of 10.1%. The energy efficiency of the transport sector improved by 4%, mainly due to the energy efficiency improvements of cars (7.1%). During 2002-2007, the primary energy intensity of the economy decreased by 1.9%. According to the Directive 2006/32/CE, over the period 2008-2016, Italy should reach the energy savings target of 9.6%.
As an IPEEC member, Italy leads the WEACT (Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building and Training) task group.
Since 1970, energy efficiency in Japan has improved by 37%. Worldwide, Japan has the best indicators for primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP.
The country possesses cutting-edge energy-saving and clean energy technology. The leading position of Japan in terms of energy-efficiency is due to the concentrated efforts of both the public and private sectors.
Japan pledged that by 2012, its greenhouse emissions would be 6% below the 1990 levels. The country has ambitious plans to improve its overall energy efficiency and to act as the benchmark in this sphere for the rest of the world.
In 2010, during the Conference of Parties (COP) meeting in Cancun, Japan declared its will to boost energy efficiency worldwide through international cooperation and implementation of multilateral projects. As an IPEEC member, Japan leads the EMAK (Energy Management Action Network for Industrial Efficiency) task group and jointly leads the GSEP (Global Superior Energy Performance Initiative) task group with the US.
Me has considerable potential for increasing its energy efficiency and adhering to the green growth strategy. The country’s geography favours the development of renewable sources of energy.
By the end of 2008, the installed capacity of renewable energy sources was nearly 2,000 MW of power. This capacity includes wind, small scale (less than 30 MW) hydroelectric, geothermal and biomass sources. Renewable sources represented 3.3% share of the Mexican energy mix in 2008. The greatest share belonged to fossil fuels — at 75.3% — followed by large-scale hydroelectric power generation, at 19%. Due to its favourable geographic position, Me can effectively develop its solar energy capacity.
According to the National Development Plan, which defines a strategy up until 2030, the following would form the base of Me ’s energy-efficient development:
The National Commission for Efficient Energy Use (CONUEE) is responsible for promoting energy efficiency and energy saving in Me . The Commission is an independent agency of the Ministry of Energy.
Ever since China opened its borders and began implementing economic reforms in the late 1970s, its economy has been growing at an impressive rate - approximately 9.6% per year. This considerable growth was supported by increasing energy demand. To face the challenge, the Chinese government implemented energy efficiency and energy conservation measures.
In 1999, The China Sustainable Development Program, aimed at increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use, was launched. China became the first developing country to publish a national strategy addressing global warming. The Chinese Government set a goal of reducing the economy's carbon intensity by 40-45% below 2005 levels by 2020.
In 2010, the total worldwide investment in renewable energy reached $243 billion, of which China invested $51.1 billion, 30% more than the country had spent in 2009. China installed 16GW, of wind power capacity during 2010, bringing its total capacity to 41.8GW, and became the nation with the largest wind generation capacity in the world.
China participates actively in international energy-efficiency programmes along with the OECD and non-OECD countries. China currently participates in the Three Country Energy Efficiency Project, along with Brazil and India.
South Korea shows growing concern about energy efficiency, energy security and green growth. An ambitious target of curbing greenhouse emissions by 30% by 2020 was announced in 2010. To achieve this emission limit, the plan will be implemented for 470 Korean companies which produce 60% of the country’s CO2 emissions.
During 2010-2015, Korea plans to invest $88 billion in improving its energy efficiency. Starting from 2009, the country has been investing 2% of its GDP to improve the energy efficiency of its economy. Korea plans to create 1.8 million new green jobs by 2013.
In 2009, Korea announced its plans to invest $193 million in alternative energy, a 60% growth in investment in this sector. The investments are made to support solar and wind energy as well as biofuels. The government is willing to increase the domestic supply of renewable energy and make the economy less dependent on oil imports.
Republic of Korea is active on the international markets it has joint projects with the USA, a smart grid energy management system is being developed by IBM for the country, and Korean climate policy attracted great attention from the international community.
The Russian economy is driven mainly by the energy sector. This is why improvements in energy efficiency can make great contributions to the sustainable development of the country. During 2000-2006, the energy intensity of the Russian economy decreased by 24%.
The Russian Energy Agency of the Russian Ministry of Energy monitors the implementation of energy efficiency measures. The agency was organised in 2009 with the goal of increasing the energy efficiency of the Russian economy. The Russian Energy Agency is charged with the implementation of the federal energy efficiency and energy savings laws.
Russia has announced ambitious goals of decreasing energy consumption per unit of output by 40% and cutting CO2 emissions by 25% by 2020. These targets imply investments of approximately $300 billion. The energy efficiency measures will help the country save $35 billion per year. Russia is very likely to meet its Kyoto Protocol obligations.
Roughly 21% of Russia’s electricity generation capacity is hydro-based and 1% comes from renewable sources such as wind and geothermal energy, as well as waste heat. In 2009, Russia’s energy policy included a mandate to increase energy generated from renewable sources to 4.5% (up from less than 1%), by 2020. In an energy system as large as Russia’s, this means a major growth in renewable energy production - approximately 22 GW of additional renewable generation.
Russia has a high potential for increasing renewable energy production from hydro, biomass, wind and solar sources: the volume of renewable energy generation with economic potential corresponds to about 30% of Russia’s actual total primary energy supply (TPES), while the technical potential is estimated to be more than 5 times greater than TPES.
South Africa has taken major steps to move towards a low carbon economy catalyzed by its commitment to reduce emissions below a baseline of 34% by 2020, and 42% by 2025. Energy efficiency will play a major role in reaching this goal.
The national Energy Efficiency Strategy was approved by the Cabinet in March 2005 and reviewed in October 2008. The Minister of Energy and Minerals, along with CEOs from 24 major energy users and seven industrial associations, signed the Energy Efficiency Accord, voluntarily committing to achieving the government’s energy saving targets. The strategy set the improved energy efficiency target for South Africa as a whole at 12% by 2015 and a 15% reduction rate in the industry sector.
The vision of strategy is to contribute towards affordable energy for all and minimize the negative effects of energy usage on human health and the environment. This will be achieved by encouraging sustainable energy development and energy use through efficiency practices. It contributes to the implementation of sector programs through a three-phase approach, timed as follows:
The broad principle of this phased approach is to initiate actions with rapid returns during the early phases.
You can access South Africa's Energy Efficiency Report below.
The Government’s vision for the UK is of a thriving, globally competitive, low-carbon energy economy. This will require a transformation in the way the UK both generates and uses energy to ensure transition to a secure, affordable, low-carbon energy system on track to deliver an 80% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 as required by the UK Climate Change Act.
The policy and programmes adopted in the UK for driving improvements are set out in the UK Carbon Plan. A range of policy levers has been deployed across different sectors of the economy, including voluntary agreements, market mechanisms, provision of advice and information, regulation, fiscal incentives and procurement.
Significant recent developments include the development of the “Green Deal” to revolutionise the energy efficiency of properties in the UK by addressing barriers to investment. At the heart of this initiative will be The “Green Deal Plan”, an innovative financing mechanism allowing consumers to pay back the cost of up-front investments through savings on their energy bills. The Green Deal will work in tandem with a new Energy Companies Obligation that will succeed the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target, which has already helped millions of households to save energy and money, delivering saving of almost 300 million tonnes of CO2.allow
The UK Government has also put in place a strategy and timetable for the installation of 53 million smart meters in 30 million homes and businesses across Great Britain, estimated to have a net benefit to the nation of £7.3 billion over the next twenty years. Smart meters will deliver a range of benefits to consumers, energy suppliers and networks providing real time information on energy consumption to help control energy use, save money and reduce emissions.
The UK Government also announced that the Climate Change Agreements (CCAs) with energy-intensive industry will be extended to 2023 and the Climate Change Levy discount on electricity for CCA participants will be increased from 65 to 80 per cent from April 2013. Under the Climate Change Agreements eligible sectors of industry receive this reduction in the Levy in return for meeting ambitious energy efficiency or carbon-saving targets.
As an IPEEC member, the UK is leading the PEPDEE (Policies for Energy Prodiver Delivery of Energy Efficiency) task group.
You can access UK's Energy Efficiency Report below.
You may also wish to consult UK's report from the Energy-Efficiency-Watch Project published by EUFORES below.
Energy policy in the United States is driven by three priorities: economic growth, energy security, and environmental protection. Energy efficiency has been a major component of U.S. energy policy since the oil crises of the 1970s, as a cost-effective approach to address these policy drivers across all sectors of the economy. Energy-efficient technologies and practices can save consumers and companies money on energy bills, reduce dependence on oil imports, and reduce emissions of hasardous air pollutants and greenhouse gases.
While energy efficiency technologies are widely understood to be cost-effective investments—saving money over the life of the product—barriers to deployment remain.
The U.S. government supports multiple programmes and policies to address these barriers:
Energy efficiency programmes such as these, along with state and municipal programmes and private sector investments, have helped the United States reduce its energy intensity (energy consumption per GDP) by over 28 % between 1990 and 2008. Expected to further this progress, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) included $90 billion of investments in the U.S. clean energy economy. Government policies and support helped spur growth in private-sector investments in clean energy, such that total investments grew from $16 billion in 2009 to $25 billion in 2010 in the U.S., according to a recent UNEP/Bloomberg New Energy Finance report.
In March 2011, President Obama revealed his Blueprint for a Secure Energy Future. The plan includes a three-part strategy to:
Energy Efficiency is a key component of the blueprint, which includes specific strategies to improve efficiency in vehicles, homes, commercial buildings, and industrial facilities.
The U.S. Department of Energy is charged with implementing and monitoring many of the country’s energy efficiency programmes and projects, and serves as the lead U.S. Government Agency on IPEEC. As an IPEEC member, the U.S. leads the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment Initiative (SEAD) and co-leads the Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership (GSEP). The U.S. also participates in IPEEC Tasks on Assessment of Energy Efficiency Financing Mechanisms, the Sustainable Buildings Network, Worldwide Energy Efficiency Action through Capacity Building & Training, Improving Policies through Energy Efficiency Indicators, the Energy Management Action Network, and Policies for Energy Provider Delivery of Energy Efficiency.
In addition to IPEEC, the United States participates in and contributes to other multilateral energy efficiency and climate change partnerships and programmes, including the Clean Energy Ministerial, the Clean Technology Fundand Global Environment Facility. IPEEC is also a participating partner in the Clean Energy Solutions Center, the U.S.-led Clean Energy Ministerial initiative, which provides technical resources, virtual expert assistance, on-line training, and peer-to-peer learning forums to advance the use of effective energy efficiency policies and programmes.
You can access USA's APEC country profile below.